Anxiety is a feeling of fear, dread, and uneasiness. It might cause you to sweat, feel restless and tense, and have a rapid heartbeat. It can be a normal reaction to stress. For example, you might feel anxious when faced with a difficult problem at work, before taking a test, or before making an important decision. It can help you to cope. The anxiety may give you a boost of energy or help you focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, the fear is not temporary and can be overwhelming.

What are anxiety disorders?

Anxiety disorders are conditions in which you have anxiety that does not go away and can get worse over time. The symptoms can interfere with daily activities such as job performance, schoolwork, and relationships.

What are the types of anxiety disorders?

There are several types of anxiety disorders, including:

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).People with GAD worry about ordinary issues such as health, money, work, and family. But their worries are excessive, and they have them almost every day for at least 6 months.

    Panic disorder. People with panic disorder have panic attacks. These are sudden, repeated periods of intense fear when there is no danger. The attacks come on quickly and can last several minutes or more.

    Phobias. People with phobias have an intense fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. Their fear may be about spiders, flying, going to crowded places, or being in social situations (known as social anxiety).

What causes anxiety disorders?

The cause of anxiety is unknown. Factors such as genetics, brain biology and chemistry, stress, and your environment may play a role.

Who is at risk for anxiety disorders?

The risk factors for the different types of anxiety disorders can vary. For example, GAD and phobias are more common in women, but social anxiety affects men and women equally. There are some general risk factors for all types of anxiety disorders, including:

    Certain personality traits, such as being shy or withdrawn when you are in new situations or meeting new people

    Traumatic events in early childhood or adulthood

    Family history of anxiety or other mental disorders

    Some physical health conditions, such as thyroid problems or arrhythmia

What are the symptoms of anxiety disorders?

The different types of anxiety disorders can have different symptoms. But they all have a combination of:

    Anxious thoughts or beliefs that are hard to control. They make you feel restless and tense and interfere with your daily life. They do not go away and can get worse over time.

    Physical symptoms, such as a pounding or rapid heartbeat, unexplained aches and pains, dizziness, and shortness of breath

    Changes in behavior, such as avoiding everyday activities you used to do

Using caffeine, other substances, and certain medicines can make your symptoms worse.

How are anxiety disorders diagnosed?

To diagnose anxiety disorders, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You may also have a physical exam and lab tests to make sure that a different health problem is not the cause of your symptoms.

If you don’t have another health problem, you will get a psychological evaluation. Your provider may do it, or you may be referred to a mental health professional to get one.

What are the treatments for anxiety disorders?

The main treatments for anxiety disorders are psychotherapy (talk therapy), medicines, or both:

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that is often used to treat anxiety disorders. CBT teaches you different ways of thinking and behaving. It can help you change how you react to the things that cause you to feel fear and anxiety. It may include exposure therapy. This focuses on having you confront your fears so that you will be able to do the things that you had been avoiding.

    Medicines to treat anxiety disorders include anti-anxiety medicines and certain antidepressants. Some types of medicines may work better for specific types of anxiety disorders. You should work closely with your health care provider to identify which medicine is best for you. You may need to try more than one medicine before you can find the right one.

What are the types of anxiety disorders?

Anxiety is a vital part of several different disorders. These include:

    Panic disorder. This means you experience recurring panic attacks at unexpected times.

    Phobia. This is an excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.

    Social anxiety disorder. This is an extreme fear of being judged by others in social situations.

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder. This means you have recurring irrational thoughts that lead you to perform specific, repeated behaviors.

    Separation anxiety disorder. This means you have a fear of being away from home or your loved ones.

    Illness anxiety disorder. This is anxiety about your health (formerly called hypochondria).

In addition, a number of mental health and medical conditions may feature anxiety as a symptom. These include:

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is anxiety following a traumatic event.

    Major depressive disorders. A strong relationship exists between depression and anxiety.

    Chronic disease. Managing conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes may result in anxiety symptoms.

    Inflammatory conditions. Anxiety can lead to chronic inflammation and diseases such as arthritis

    Substance use disorders: many people with anxiety may try to self-medicate to help manage their symptoms.

    Chronic pain. Anxiety is often foundTrusted Source in those with chronic pain disorders.

What are the symptoms of anxiety?

Anxiety feels different depending on the person experiencing it. Feelings can range from butterflies in your stomach to a racing heart. You might feel out of control like there’s a disconnect between your mind and body.

You may have a general feeling of fear and worry, or you may fear a specific place or event. In some cases, you may experience a panic attack.

SymptomsTrusted Source of anxiety can include:

    anxious thoughts or beliefs that are difficult to control


    trouble concentrating

    difficulty falling asleep



    unexplained aches and pains

Your anxiety symptoms might be different from someone else’s. That’s why it’s essential to know how anxiety can present itself. Read about the many types of anxiety symptoms you might experience.

What is a panic attack?

A panic attack is a feeling of intense fear that comes on suddenly and peaks within 10 to 20 minutes. The initial trigger of the fear can be known or unknown.

The physical symptoms can mimic a heart attack. Once you’re experiencing a panic attack, the symptoms may get worse if you believe you may be having a heart attack or having a mental health emergency. Another common fear that may exacerbate a panic attack is the fear that you might be judged negatively if you’re having an attack in public.

Panic attacks can vary greatly, and symptoms may differ among individuals. In addition, the many symptoms of anxiety don’t happen to everyone, and they can change over time.

Common symptomsTrusted Source of a panic attack include:

    chest pain

    feeling of choking

    fear of losing control

    feeling of impending doom

    sweating, chills, and hot flashes


    numbness and tingling of hands, feet, or face

    nausea or upset stomach

    shortness of breath

    fear of dying

When you experience repeated panic or anxiety attacks, you may have a panic disorder.

What causes anxiety?

Experts aren’t sure of the exact cause of anxiety. But it’s likely that a combination of factors play a role.

The causes of anxiety may include:


    other medical issues such as depression or diabetes

    first degree relatives with generalized anxiety disorder

    environmental concerns, such as child abuse

    substance use

    situations such as surgery or occupational hazard

In addition, researchers believe that it stems from the areas of the brain responsible for controlling fear and the storing and retrieval of emotional and fear-related memories.

Who is at risk of anxiety disorders?

With each type of anxiety, there are different risk factors. But there are some general influencesTrusted Source, including:

    Personality traits. This includes shyness and nervousness in childhood.

    Life history. This includes being exposed to negative or stressful live events.

    Genetics. Of those who have a diagnosis of anxiety, 25 percentTrusted Source have a first degree relative who also has a diagnosis of anxiety.

    Other health conditions. Thyroid problems and other health conditions can make you prone to anxiety.

    Stimulants. Consuming caffeineTrusted Source, specific substances, and medications can worsen your symptoms.

Are there tests that diagnose anxiety?

A single test can’t diagnose anxiety. Instead, an anxiety diagnosis requires a lengthy process of physical examinations, mental health tests, and psychological questionnaires.

Some doctors or healthcare professionals may conduct a physical exam, including blood or urine tests to rule out underlying medical conditions that could contribute to the symptoms you’re experiencing.

Several anxiety tests and scales are also used to help a doctor assess the level of anxiety you’re experiencing. Reach about each of these tests.

What are treatments for anxiety?

Once you’ve received a diagnosis of anxiety, you can explore treatment options with a doctor.

But treatment can help you overcome the symptoms and lead a more manageable day-to-day life.

Treatment for anxiety falls into three categories:

    Psychotherapy. Therapy can include cognitive behavioral therapy and exposure response prevention.

    Complemental health techniques. Mindfulness, yoga, and self-management strategies such as stress management are ways to treat your anxiety using alternative methods.

    Medication. Doctors prescribe antianxiety and antidepressant drugs.

Meeting with a therapist or psychologist can help you learn tools to use and strategies to cope with stress when it occurs.

The Mental Health Resources page can provide tips on finding a psychiatrist, or a doctor who specializes in mental health, to fit your needs.

Medications typically used to treat anxiety include benzodiazepines for short-term symptom relief, but they’re avoided if possible due to the high risk of dependence. Other antianxiety or antidepressant medications such as escitalopram effectively alter your brain chemistry to improve mood and reduce stress.

Some other commonly used medications include:

    Selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Escitalopram, fluoxetine, and paroxetine are common SSRIs.

    Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Duloxetine and venlafaxine are common SNRIs.

    Antipsychotics. Quetiapine and aripiprazole are common antipsychotics.

    Benzodiazepines. Diazepam and clonazepam are common benzodiazepines.

    Anxiolytics. Buspirone is a common anxiolytic.

What natural remedies are used for anxiety?

Lifestyle changes can effectively relieve some of the stress and anxiety you may cope with every day. Most natural “remedies” consist of caring for your body and participating in healthy activities while eliminating unhealthy ones.

These include:

    getting enough sleep


    staying active and exercising

    eating a healthy diet

    avoiding alcohol

    avoiding caffeine

    quitting smoking cigarettes if you smoke

If these lifestyle changes seem like a positive way to help you eliminate some anxiety, read about how each one works—plus, get more great ideas for treating anxiety.

Anxiety and depression

If you have an anxiety disorder, you may also be experiencing depression. While anxiety and depression can occur separately, it’s not unusual for mental health disorders to happen together.

Anxiety can be a symptom of clinical or major depression. Likewise, worsening symptoms of depression can become triggered by an anxiety disorder.

You can manage symptoms of both conditions with many of the same treatments: psychotherapy (counseling), medications, and lifestyle changes.

How to help children with anxiety

Anxiety in children is natural and expected. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 9.4%Trusted Source of children and adolescents ages 3 to 17 have had a diagnosis of anxiety.

As children grow up, they should outgrow the worries and fears they felt when they were younger. It may be considered an anxiety disorder if they’re afraid to be away from their parents, exhibit extreme fear, and other anxiety symptoms that interfere with their day-to-day lives.

Anxiety in children can also become chronic and persistent, with uncontrolled anxiety leading them to avoid interacting with their peers or family members.

Symptoms of an anxiety disorderTrusted Source in children might include:



    trouble sleeping

    feelings of fear




Anxiety treatment for children includes cognitive behavioral therapy (talk therapy) and medications. Learn more about the symptoms of an anxiety disorder and techniques to help calm your child’s anxiety.

How to help teens with anxiety

Teenagers may have many reasons to be anxious. Tests, college visits, and first dates all pop up in these important years. But teenagers who feel anxious or experience anxiety symptoms frequently may have an anxiety disorder.

Symptoms of anxiety in teenagers may include nervousness, shyness, isolationist behaviors, and avoidance. Likewise, anxiety in teens may lead to unusual behaviors.

For example, they may act out, perform poorly in school, skip social events, and even engage in substance or alcohol use.

In some teens, depression may accompany anxiety. Diagnosing both conditions is essential so that their treatment can address the underlying issues and help relieve symptoms.

The most common treatments for anxiety in teenagers are talk therapy and medication. These treatments also help address depression symptoms.

Anxiety and stress

Stress and anxiety are related but different. Stress is a typical and healthy reaction to an identifiable event that’s making you nervous, such as an upcoming test, presentation, wedding, or other major change in your life.

Stress will go away once the trigger goes away. Anxiety, on the other hand, persists beyond any trigger and may exist without a known trigger. A person may need treatment for anxiety to go away.

Both anxiety and stress respond well to physical activity, good sleep hygiene, and a well-balanced diet. But if your anxiety and stress don’t respond well and you feel your day-to-day functioning is impaired, a mental health professional can help you determine a treatment plan.

Physical symptoms of anxiety

When you experience symptoms of anxiety, they can manifest as physical symptoms such as:



    heart palpitations

    muscle aches and tensions


    dry mouth

    excessive sweating




Neither stress nor anxiety is always bad. Both can provide you with a boost or incentive to accomplish the task or challenge before you. But if these feelings become persistent, they can begin to interfere with your daily life. In that case, it’s important to get treatment.

The long-term outlook for people with untreated depression and anxiety includes chronic health issues, such as heart disease. Learn why anxiety and stress occur and how you can manage the conditions.

Anxiety and alcohol

If you’re anxious frequently, you may decide you’d like a drink to calm your nerves. After all, alcohol is a sedative. In addition, it can depress the activity of your central nervous system, which may help you feel more relaxed.

Some people with anxiety disorders abuse alcohol or other drugs regularly to feel better, creating dependency and addiction.

It may be necessary to treat an alcohol or drug problem before doctors can address the anxiety. But chronic or long-term use can ultimately worsen the condition. Read more to understand how alcohol can worsen anxiety symptoms.

Can foods treat anxiety?

Doctors commonly use medication and talk therapy to treat anxiety. But lifestyle changes, such as getting enough sleep and regular exercise, can also help. In addition, some research suggests the foods you eat may have a beneficial impact on your brain if you frequently experience anxiety.

These foods include:

    flax and chia seeds

    fatty fish such as mackerel and salmon


    vitamin D



Read more about how these foods can boost your brain health and lower your anxiety.

Anxiety prevention

Children and teens

It’s not known why anxiety develops in children and teenagers. But there are excellent public health approaches that work to prevent the disorder, and they include:

    suicide prevention

    bullying prevention

    youth violence prevention

    child maltreatment prevention

    mental health programs

As parents, you can communicate openly and honestly with your child while ensuring they’re making healthy decisions.

To learn more about how to support your child’s mental health, please check out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) resource pageTrusted Source.

In addition, in cases of children and teens experiencing anxiety in response to something happening within their family or in their home, it’s a good idea to get family therapy. This is important especially because children and teens may not find it so easy to talk about their feelings or be aware of their anxiety.


There are many ways to prevent anxiety and its symptoms. Please see the below options:

    Avoidance. Avoiding people, places, and situations can lessen your stress and anxiety. But this would be a short-term strategy. In the long term, it’s better if you get treatment so you no longer need to avoid a trigger.

    Stress management and mindfulness. Practicing stress management and mindfulness prevents strain.

    Restrict caffeine. Caffeine can worsen anxiety symptoms.

    Support groups. Speaking with others is an opportunity to share coping strategies and experiences.

    Therapy. Speaking with a therapist can help you develop more effective ways to cope with fears and stress that lead to anxiety.

    Speak with a doctor about your medications. Regularly speaking with a doctor about your medications’ dosing, effectiveness, and side effects ensures any health condition is treated adequately and monitored for any possible anxiety-related side effects.


You can treat your anxiety with medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two.

But some people who have a mild anxiety disorder, or a fear of something they can easily avoid, decide to live with the condition and don’t get treatment.

Avoiding the trigger, however, can actually make anxiety worse in the long term. Treatment can help you overcome the need to avoid a trigger.

It’s important to understand that anxiety disorders can be treated, even in severe cases. Although anxiety usually doesn’t go away, you can learn to manage it and live a happy, healthy life.

Sources Internet, various health websites and Google search

What causes high in cholesterol?

    High cholesterol is when you have too much of a fatty substance called cholesterol in your blood.

    It’s mainly caused by eating fatty food, not exercising enough, being overweight, smoking and drinking alcohol. It can also run in families.

    You can lower your cholesterol by eating healthily and getting more exercise. Some people also need to take medicine.

    Too much cholesterol can block your blood vessels. It makes you more likely to have heart problems or a stroke.

    High cholesterol does not cause symptoms. You can only find out if you have it from a blood test.

Check if you have high cholesterol

High cholesterol does not cause symptoms. You can only find out if you have it from a blood test.

Your GP might suggest having a test if they think your cholesterol level could be high.

This may be because of your age, weight or another condition you have (like high blood pressure or diabetes).

Having a cholesterol test

There are 2 ways of having a cholesterol test.

Taking blood from your arm

Some blood will usually be taken from your arm with a needle.

This is sent to a lab to check your cholesterol level. You should get the result in a few days.

You might be asked not to eat anything for up to 12 hours before the test. But this is not always needed.

Finger-prick test

If you’re over 40, you may have a test during your Health Check. You can also get this check at a pharmacy.

This is a check-up that can help spot early signs of problems like heart disease and diabetes.

The test can be done by pricking your finger. A drop of blood is put on a strip of paper. This is put into a machine that checks your cholesterol in a few minutes.

What happens next

If you have high cholesterol, a doctor or nurse will talk to you about how you can lower it.

This might include things like changing your diet or taking medicine.

They may also work out your risk of having a heart attack or stroke in the next 10 years.

They can do this using your:

    cholesterol levels

    blood pressure

    height and weight

    age, sex and ethnicity

Lowering your cholesterol can help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.

About your cholesterol result

A cholesterol test can measure:

    total cholesterol – the overall amount of cholesterol in your blood, including both “good” and “bad” cholesterol

    total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL) – the level of good cholesterol in your blood compared to your overall cholesterol level

    good cholesterol (called HDL) – this makes you less likely to have heart problems or a stroke

    bad cholesterol (called LDL and non-HDL) – this makes you more likely to have heart problems or a stroke

    triglycerides – a fatty substance similar to bad cholesterol

When you get your result, you may just be told your total cholesterol.

You might be able to get separate results for your good and bad cholesterol, triglycerides, and your total cholesterol to HDL ratio. Ask your doctor or nurse.

Type of cholesterolAnyone 19 or youngerMen aged 20 or overWomen aged 20 or over
total cholesterolless than 170 mg/dl125–200 mg/dl125–200 mg/dl
non-HDLless than 120 mg/dlless than 130 mg/dlless than 130 mg/dl
LDLless than 100 mg/dlless than 100 mg/dlless than 100 mg/dl
HDLmore than 45 mg/dl40 mg/dl or higher50 mg/dl or higher
Source Medical News

Check what your cholesterol levels should be

This is just a guide. The levels you should aim for might be different. Ask your doctor or nurse what your levels should be.

Healthy levels for different types of cholesterol.

Result   Healthy level (mmol/L)

Total cholesterol                                                          5 or below

HDL (good cholesterol)                                             1 or above

Non-HDL (bad cholesterol)                                       4 or below

Total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio               6 or below

Fasting triglycerides (when you’re asked not to eat for several hours before the test)     1.7 or below

Non-fasting triglycerides (when you eat as normal before the test)         2.3 or below

Ways to lower your cholesterol

Eat less fatty food

To reduce your cholesterol, try to cut down on fatty food, especially food that contains a type of fat called saturated fat.

You can still have foods that contain a healthier type of fat called unsaturated fat.

Check labels on food to see what type of fat it has in it.

Try to eat more:

    oily fish, like mackerel and salmon

    brown rice, wholegrain bread and wholewheat pasta

    nuts and seeds

    fruits and vegetables

Try to eat less:

    meat pies, sausages and fatty meat

    butter, lard and ghee

    cream and hard cheese, like cheddar

    cakes and biscuits

    food that contains coconut oil or palm oil

Exercise more

Aim to do at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of exercise a week.

Some good things to try when starting out include:

    walking – try to walk fast enough so your heart starts beating faster



Try a few different exercises to find something you like doing. You’re more likely to keep doing it if you enjoy it.

Stop smoking

Smoking can raise your cholesterol and make you more likely to have serious problems like heart attacks, strokes and cancer.

If you want to stop smoking, you can get help and support from:

your GP 

They can give you useful tips and advice about ways to stop cravings.

Cut down on alcohol

Try to:

    avoid drinking more than 14 units of alcohol a week

    have several drink-free days each week

    avoid drinking lots of alcohol in a short time (binge drinking)

Ask your GP for help and advice if you’re struggling to cut down.

Medicine to lower your cholesterol

You might need medicine to lower your cholesterol if:

    your cholesterol level has not gone down after changing your diet and lifestyle

    you’re at a high risk of having a heart attack or stroke

Ask your doctor about the medicines you can take.


Statins are the most common medicine for high cholesterol.

They reduce the amount of cholesterol your body makes.

You take a tablet once a day. You usually need to take them for life.

Other medicines for high cholesterol

Other medicines may be used if statins do not work or you do not want to take statins.

These include:

    other tablets – such as ezetimibe, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (also called resins) and bempedoic acid

    injections – such as alirocumab, evolocumab and inclisiran

Source NHS UK


Dengue Symptoms and Treatment

Key Facts

    1 in 4: About one in four people infected with dengue will get sick.

    For people who get sick with dengue, symptoms can be mild or severe.     Severe dengue can be life-threatening within a few hours and often requires care at a hospital


    Mild symptoms of dengue can be confused with other illnesses that cause fever, aches and pains, or a rash.

Graphic of human body showing most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following: eye pain, headache, muscle pain, rash, bone pain, nausea/vomiting, joint pain

The most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following:

    Nausea, vomiting


    Aches and pains (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain)

    Any warning sign

Symptoms of dengue typically last 2–7 days. Most people will recover after about a week.


    There is no specific medicine to treat dengue.

    Treat the symptoms of dengue and see your healthcare provider.

If you think you have dengue

    See a healthcare provider if you develop a fever or have symptoms of dengue. Tell him or her about your travel.

    Rest as much as possible.

    Take acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol ) to control fever and relieve pain.

        Do not take aspirin or ibuprofen!

    Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated. Drink water or drinks with added electrolytes.

    For mild symptoms, care for a sick infant, child, or family member at home.

Sign for emergency room

Symptoms of dengue can become severe within a few hours. Severe dengue is a medical emergency.

Severe dengue

    About 1 in 20 people who get sick with dengue will develop severe dengue.

    Severe dengue can result in shock, internal bleeding, and even death.

    If you have had dengue in the past, you are more likely to develop severe dengue.

    Infants and pregnant women are at higher risk for developing severe dengue.

Symptoms of severe dengue

Warning signs of severe dengue

Watch for signs and symptoms of severe dengue. Warning signs usually begin in the 24–48 hours after your fever has gone away.

Immediately go to a local clinic or emergency room if you or a family member has any of the following symptoms.

    Belly pain, tenderness

    Vomiting (at least 3 times in 24 hours)

    Bleeding from the nose or gums

    Vomiting blood, or blood in the stool

    Feeling tired, restless, or irritable

Treatment of severe dengue

    If you have any warning signs, see a healthcare provider or go to the emergency room immediately.

    Severe dengue is a medical emergency. It requires immediate medical care at a clinic or hospital.

    If you are traveling, find health care facility as soon as possible.