Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Also known as Diabetes mellitus, Adult onset diabetes, Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Hyperglycemia and High blood glucose


Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in which the body fails to effectively use insulin. According to the WHO, more than 95% of people with diabetes worldwide suffer from type 2 diabetes. Until recently, type 2 diabetes was thought to be affecting only adults above the age of 40 years. However, due to stress and an inactive lifestyle, even people in their 20s are also at a high risk of diabetes.

Initially, Type 2 diabetes is mostly asymptomatic. Also, the symptoms tend to develop slowly and go unnoticed for a long time which makes it difficult to diagnose the condition. You might be at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if anyone in your family has diabetes along with other risk factors such as obesity, inactive lifestyle, etc.

The gold standard test to diagnose type 2 diabetes is HbA1c as it gives you an idea of your blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. However, other tests such as fasting glucose and postprandial glucose tests are also commonly used. Once diagnosed, it is important to go for regular health check-ups and manage your diabetes properly because if left uncontrolled, it can impact other organs such as the kidneys, eyes, heart, nerves and legs.

Type 2 diabetes is managed with the help of diet control, exercise and use of oral medications. In cases of uncontrolled diabetes or high glucose levels, your doctor might recommend the use of insulin injections or pens. 

Key Facts

Usually seen in

  • Adults above 20 years of age

Gender affected

  • Both men and women

Body part(s) involved

  • Pancreas
  • Eyes
  • Nerves
  • Feet
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Skin
  • Reproductive system


  • Worldwide: 462 million (2017)

Mimicking Conditions

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Infections
  • Cushing syndrome

Necessary health tests/imaging

  • Glucose-random blood (RBG) test
  • Glucose-fasting blood (FBG) test
  • Glucose postprandial blood (PPBG) test
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test


  • Biguanides: Metformin 
  • Sulphonylureas: Glimepiride & Glipizide
  • Thiazolidinediones: Pioglitazone
  • Meglitinides: Repaglinide & Nateglinide
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: Acarbose & Miglitol
  • DPP-4 inhibitors: Sitagliptin & Saxagliptin
  • Incretin mimetics: Exenatide, Liraglutide & Dulaglutide
  • Insulin: Lispro,  Insulin Isophane &  Glargine

Specialists to consult

  • Endocrinologist
  • Diabetologist

Related NGOs

  • Home – DIYAbetes India
  • Diabetes foundation India – DFI
  • Diabetes care foundation of India
  • Indian council for diabetic care | NGO

Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is initially asymptomatic, which means it does not show symptoms for a long time. Moreover, it progresses at a very slow pace, which makes it difficult for any of the key warning signs to appear early. This is the reason why it is often said that NO symptoms are one of the most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

However, there are some symptoms that may indicate type 2 diabetes which include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Increased hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Blurry eyesight
  • Lack of energy/fatigue
  • Delayed healing of cuts and other injuries
  • Frequent yeast infections
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Areas of darkened skin, usually affecting the armpits and neck
  • Dry skin

Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. The pancreas is located below and behind the stomach. Insulin helps to move blood sugar (glucose) into the cells. Glucose is then stored inside the cells and later used for energy.

In type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. Thereby, blood glucose does not get into cells to be stored for energy. When glucose is not able to enter cells, a high level of glucose builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. 

As blood glucose levels increase, the pancreas is triggered to release more insulin. Over a long time, the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin to meet the body’s demands. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes

The factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes are as follows:

Age: The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, especially after 45 years.

Family history: The risk of type 2 diabetes is higher in case parents or siblings have the condition. Also, genetic predisposition of high cholesterol, high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease can also predispose to type 2 diabetes.

Race and ethnicity: People of certain races and ethnicities like African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Unhealthy eating habits: Eating a calorie-dense diet with processed foods and beverages, and a diet low in whole, nutrient-rich foods, can significantly increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. 

Being overweight or obese: Moreover, fat stored in the belly or abdomen region with waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) for a man or above 35 inches (88.9 centimeters) for a woman poses a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

Sedentary lifestyle: Less physical activity can lead to weight gain and obesity thereby increasing the risk of diabetes.

Blood cholesterol levels: Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) can predispose to type 2 diabetes.

Prediabetes: In prediabetes, the blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be categorized as diabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes often leads to type 2 diabetes.

Pregnancy related issues: Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or giving birth to a child weighing more than 4 kgs increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS which is characterized by irregular menstrual cycle, excessive facial hair growth and obesity also increases the risk of diabetes.

Smoking: The chemicals in cigarettes cause inflammation throughout the body. Additionally, when these chemicals react with oxygen in the body, they cause cell damage, called oxidative stress. Both oxidative stress and inflammation caused by smoking are related to increased risk of diabetes.

Sleep habits: Sleep disturbances can affect the body’s balance of insulin and blood sugar by increasing the demand on the pancreas thereby leading to diabetes.

Stress: Stress can stimulate the release of various hormones, which can predispose to high blood sugar levels.

Anxiety and depression: Psychological problems like depression are known to increase the risk of diabetes.

Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

The common lab tests include blood tests and urine tests. In addition to that, your doctor might conduct a thorough physical examination to check for signs of any skin problems. Also, imaging tests might also be advised in some cases to check the effect of diabetes on the nerves and other body organs. Psychiatric evaluation can also be recommended in people during the initial stages as most people tend to go through a rejection phase before finally accepting the fact that they have diabetes.

The commonly recommended blood tests used to diagnose diabetes include:

1. Random blood sugar test
The random blood glucose test is done to measure the levels of glucose circulating in the blood. This test is done to diagnose diabetes. You can take this test at any time of the day as it doesn’t need you to fast unlike other tests for diabetes. However, other tests are required to confirm the diagnosis. The test is done as a part of routine preventive health check-up or if you have symptoms of high blood glucose/hyperglycemia. Diabetes is confirmed, if your blood glucose levels are greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl.

2. Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT)
This is one of the most common tests prescribed for diabetes. It is a blood test that measures the levels of glucose in the blood in the fasting state (empty stomach). Ideally, it is advised to not eat or drink anything (except water) for 8-12 hours before the test. It is the simplest as well as the fastest test to diagnose and monitor diabetes. If your blood glucose levels are greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl, diabetes is confirmed.

3. Postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) test
It is performed to measure glucose levels in the blood after a period of 2 hours from the start of the last meal. It is usually recommended to screen for prediabetes and also monitor treatment efficacy in patients undergoing treatment for diabetes. The test is usually recommended when the blood glucose level falls between 140 and 200 mg/dl.

4. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test
It is a blood test that measures a person’s average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months. It is ideally used to check how well your diabetes is managed with medication. However, if your fasting and postprandial levels are high, then HbA1c is advised to confirm the diagnosis. HbA1c levels of 5.7% to 6.4% indicate prediabetes whereas levels higher than 6.5% indicate diabetes.

5. Other tests
If diagnosed with diabetes, you may need to undergo several health tests periodically to prevent complications and learn the effects of high glucose levels on other parts of the body. These include:

  • Blood pressure
  • Eye examination 
  • Foot examination
  • Lipid profile
  • Kidney function test (KFT)
  • Liver function test (LFT)
  • Vitamin B12 test
  • Dental check-up

Celebs affected

Halle Berry

Halle BerryThe Academy-award winning American actress Halle Berry was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes due to genetic predisposition but she makes sure to keep her diabetes under control.

Tom Hanks

Tom HanksOn the American Talk show “The Late Show” in the year 2013, Oscar winning Hollywood actor Tom Hanks had revealed that he was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

With simple lifestyle changes such as diet control, staying active, keeping a tab on your weight and staying away from vices, you can lower your risk of type 2 diabetes. Here are a few tips to get started.

1. Make healthy food choices

  • Taking care of your diet is one of the most essential components to manage and prevent diabetes.
  • Switch to oils with high volume of monounsaturated fats & polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil or rice bran oil. Limit intake to one tablespoon a day.
  • Restrict intake of foods that have a high glycemic index like white breads, white rice, fatty foods, and soda.
  • Consume foods with low glycemic index like multigrain flour, whole grains, pulses, and non-starchy vegetables.
  • Limit consumption of fast food. 

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

With simple lifestyle changes such as diet control, staying active, keeping a tab on your weight and staying away from vices, you can lower your risk of type 2 diabetes. Here are a few tips to get started.

1. Make healthy food choices

  • Taking care of your diet is one of the most essential components to manage and prevent diabetes.
  • Switch to oils with high volume of monounsaturated fats & polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil or rice bran oil. Limit intake to one tablespoon a day.
  • Restrict intake of foods that have a high glycemic index like white breads, white rice, fatty foods, and soda.
  • Consume foods with low glycemic index like multigrain flour, whole grains, pulses, and non-starchy vegetables.
  • Limit consumption of fast food. 

5 simple rules you must follow to keep your blood glucose level under control.
2. Watch your weight

  • Lose weight to attain body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 24.9.
  • Pay more attention to losing abdominal or belly fat as it can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes more than fat on any other part of the body like thighs, hips, and buttocks.

3. Exercise regularly

  • Regular exercise can lower blood glucose and possibly reduce the amount of medication you need to treat diabetes, or even eliminate the need for medication.
  • Even if you do not lose any weight, exercise can help keep type 2 diabetes under control.
  • Start slowly with a low-impact exercise such as walking, swimming or jogging.
  • Exercise at least three times a week for about 30 to 45 minutes.
  • Warm up for 5 minutes before starting to exercise and cool down for 5 minutes after exercise.
  • Be more active throughout the day.  Avoid sitting for more than 2 hours at a stretch in a day.
  • Parking your car far away, opting for stairs instead of the elevator or walking instead of sitting while talking on the phone can be handy tips to increase physical activity.

4. Manage stress better

  • Stress can make blood sugar levels harder to control. 
  • It is very important to avoid unnecessary stress and indulge in activities that can help you relieve stress such as reading, traveling, sports, and other hobbies.
  • Mind-body practices such as tai chi & yoga can help in managing stress and thereby preventing diabetes.
  • You may join a yoga club nearby or dedicate 10-15 minutes every day for meditation.

Here are 6 amazing ways to battle chronic stress effectively. 
5. Get a good quality sleep

  • Make lifestyle changes to get sound sleep like going to bed and getting up at the same time every night and keeping electronics out of the bedroom.
  • Sleep problems like sleep apnea can increase the risk of diabetes. If you have trouble sleeping, consult the doctor at the earliest. 

6. Quit smoking

  • Smoking has been found to directly increase the risk of several diabetes complications such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, eye diseases, nerve damage, and kidney damage.
  • It has also been found to reduce blood flow to the feet and other body extremities. This can lead to problems in feet and slow down the healing of injuries. 
  • Hence, it is wise to quit smoking to lower your risk of diabetic complications. Talk to your doctor for measures that can help you to quit smoking.

7. Drink in moderation

  • Excessive drinking can cause unexpected spikes in blood glucose which can significantly affect your overall health, especially if you have diabetes. 
  • Men should consume no more than 2 drinks per day, and women no more than 1 drink per day. And in case you already are diabetic, alcohol can make it worse.
  • Do not drink on an empty stomach. 

Doctor To Visit

If you have been experiencing symptoms such as tingling sensation or numbness of the limbs, feeling excessively hungry or thirsty, or unexplained weight loss, then it is wise to consult following specialists:

  • Endocrinologist
  • Diabetologist

If you are already diagnosed with diabetes, then getting a regular health check-up is a must. This is because chronic or uncontrolled diabetes can impact other major organs of the body such as the eyes, legs, nerves, kidneys, and gums. So, if you suffer from any complications due to diabetes, then getting in touch with the respective specialist can help you to manage and prevent these problems. Some of the specialists who can help depending on the complication are:

  • Nephrologist
  • Neurologist
  • Cardiologist
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Dentist
  • Dietician

Consult India’s best doctor’s online with a single click. Click here to book an appointment.

Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes 

Diabetes can be treated with medications and injections along with few lifestyle modifications. Based on your blood glucose level, your doctor might recommend medicines/injections to control diabetes. Some of the common types of medicines for diabetes include:

A. Oral antidiabetics

1. Biguanides

This class of drug helps to improve glucose control by suppressing glucose production by the liver, decreasing the absorption of glucose by the intestine and increasing the insulin sensitivity. Metformin is the most commonly used biguanide to treat diabetes.

2. Sulphonylureas

These drugs are known to increase the secretion of insulin by the pancreas to manage diabetes. Some of the common examples of drugs belonging to this class include:

  • Glimepiride
  • Glipizide

3. Thiazolidinediones

This class of drugs help control diabetes by increasing insulin sensitivity in the muscles and fat tissues. Examples of this class of drug include:

  • Pioglitazone
  • Rosiglitazone

4. Meglitinides

They increase secretion of insulin by the pancreas to treat diabetes. Examples of this class of drugs include:

  • Repaglinide
  • Nateglinide

5. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

As the name suggests, this class of drugs inhibit the enzyme alpha glucosidase thereby decreasing the absorption of glucose by the intestine. Some of the commonly available drugs under this class include:

  • Acarbose
  • Miglitol

6. DPP-4 Inhibitors

It works by improving the secretion of insulin by the pancreas thereby helping in the treatment of diabetes. Examples of this class of drugs are:

  • Sitagliptin
  • Vildagliptin
  • Saxagliptin

7. Incretin mimetics

This class of oral antidiabetics are known to increase the secretion of the hormone insulin and help in controlling diabetes. Commonly known as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or GLP-1 analogues, this class includes drugs such as:

  • Exenatide
  • Liraglutide
  • Dulaglutide

B. Injectables
This includes insulin (mainly human insulin) which increases the uptake of glucose by the cells and helps to control diabetes. There are 5 different types of insulin available currently which are recommended based on the severity of the condition. These include:

  1. Rapid-acting insulin (Examples: Lispro & glulisine)
  2. Short-acting insulin (Examples: Insulin regular & semilente)
  3. Intermediate-acting insulin (Examples: Lente & insulin isophane)
  4. Long-acting insulin (Examples: Ultralente & protamine zinc)
  5. Ultra long-acting insulin (Examples: Glargine, detemir & degludec)

Home-care For Type 2 Diabetes

A. Diet in diabetes

In the case of diabetes, it is essential to understand the concept of the glycemic index (GI). The glycemic index of a food refers to the effect the food has on the body’s blood sugar levels. 

Foods are classified as low, medium, or high glycemic foods and ranked on a scale of 0–100. High GI is when the level is greater than 70, and low levels are less than 51. Diet in diabetes should include low GI foods whereas high GI foods should be avoided or limited. While choosing foods with a high GI, limit the portion size and pair them with sources of protein or healthy fat to reduce the impact on blood sugar.

Foods to prefer

1. Vegetables

Vegetables contain a good quantity of vitamins, minerals and are a great source of fiber. Green, leafy vegetables are full of essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. They’re also very low in digestible carbohydrates, so they won’t significantly affect blood sugar levels. Some of the examples of green leafy vegetables include spinach, avocados, cabbage, beans, broccoli, and kale. 

2. Fruits

There is mixed perception about intake of fruits for diabetes. Some people believe that diabetics should completely cut down fruits from their diet while some think that one can include as much fruits as they want in their diet as it doesn’t have any impact on blood glucose level. However, neither is true. It is best to include fruits as an integral part of your daily meal plan while keeping a tab on the carbohydrate content. 

Watch the video to know more about which fruits to eat and which fruits to avoid.

3. Protein-rich foods

Eating a protein rich diet can be very useful as proteins are more slowly broken down by the body than carbohydrates. They exert less effect on blood sugar level and hence can help to feel fuller for longer hours. Foods which are good sources of protein are fish, lean meats, and chicken.

4. Whole grains 

Whole grains contain higher levels of fiber and nutrients than refined white grains. Consuming a diet rich in fiber is important for people with diabetes as it slows the process of digestion and therefore, helps keep blood sugar levels stable. A few examples of whole grains to be included in the diet are brown rice, quinoa, millet, buckwheat, and millet. 

5. Seeds 

Seeds like flax seeds and chia seeds are rich in fiber and low in digestible carbs. The fiber in seeds can lower blood sugar levels by slowing down the rate at which food moves through the gut. It also helps in maintaining glycemic management in people with diabetes.

6. Nuts 

Nuts are a great source of fiber and vitamins and can be beneficial for regulating cholesterol. It has been proven regular consumption of nuts may reduce blood sugar levels. A few examples are walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, and pistachios. 

Foods to limit

1. Carbohydrate-rich foods 

Carbohydrates are an important dietary part of all meals. However, people with diabetes are benefitted from limiting their carbohydrate intake in a balanced way. Replacing carbs with other alternative options or by pairing them with a healthy protein source are good options.

2. Saturated and trans fat 

Saturated and trans fats in fried food and processed/packaged foods including chips, baked foods etc have been linked to a higher spike in blood glucose.

3. Alcohol

People with diabetes are generally advised to limit their alcohol intake to avoid sudden spikes in blood sugar levels. 

4. Sugar-sweetened beverages 

Sugar-sweetened beverages like soda, energy drinks, coffee, shakes & sweet tea lack important nutrients, and also contain a concentrated amount of sugar in each serving.

5. Excessive salt 

Salt is not directly linked to blood glucose levels, but it is important to limit the amount of salt in case of diabetes management. People with diabetes are more likely to be affected by high blood pressure that is due to taking high salt in the diet, which increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease.

Dr. Beena Bansal (MBBS, MD, DM, Endocrinology) tells us about some simple ways to curb our food cravings. Watch the video now!

B. Exercise in diabetes

Aerobic activity is one of the effective exercise options to control diabetes. When done at moderate intensity it raises your heart rate and makes you sweat thereby helping you to maintain an optimum blood glucose level. Try brisk walking, light jogging, swimming or other aerobic exercises to maintain weight and control diabetes.

C. Regular health check-ups in diabetes

  • Diabetes requires lifelong commitment towards following a healthy lifestyle, taking medicines on time and getting regular checkups to detect any complications.
  • Check your blood sugar levels at home at least once a week.
  • Get your HbA1c levels checked at least twice a year. 
  • In addition, make sure that your eyes, kidneys, heart and skin are in optimal health.
  • Visit an eye specialist once a year to detect any signs of eye damage (diabetic retinopathy).
  • Get your kidney function tests done at least 2 times a year.
  • Inspect your feet regularly for any signs of numbness, pain or growth that may lead to ulceration and complications.

Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin deficit, if left unchecked over the long term, can cause damage to many of the body’s organs, leading to disabling health complications such as:

Diabetes retinopathy: High blood glucose levels shall put you at an increased risk of eye problems such as blurred vision, cataract, and glaucoma.

Diabetic nephropathy: Excess glucose can cause thickening of blood vessels in the kidneys. This gradually impairs kidney function and increases the pressure on the kidneys and in the long run leads to chronic kidney failure and kidney failure.
Diabetic neuropathy: High blood glucose levels can affect the nerves by impairing the blood flow to the nerves by causing damage to the small blood vessels. This can result in tingling, numbness, pain or eventual loss of feeling that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Damage to nerves of the heart can result in irregular heart beat. Nerve damage in the digestive system can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation. 

Cardiovascular diseases: High blood glucose levels not only impairs the blood flow to the heart but can also increase the risk of atherosclerosis, which leads to narrowing of arterial walls throughout the body.

Diabetic ulcers: People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing foot ulcers. A diabetic ulcer is often painless, and people might not even know they have them. It is important to examine feet and legs regularly to identify diabetic ulcers and if needed, get prompt treatment.

Recurrent infections: High blood sugar can weaken the immune system. This may make one more susceptible to infections including bacterial and fungal infections.

Delayed healing: Cuts and blisters can become serious infections due to poor healing. Type 2 diabetes also causes poor circulation to the feet, which causes delayed healing of any cut or an infection. This can also lead to gangrene and loss of the foot or leg.

Hearing impairment: Hearing problems are more common in people with type 2 diabetes.

Sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea is common in type 2 diabetes patients. 

Dementia: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases that cause dementia. 
Erectile dysfunction: In men suffering from diabetes, there is a high chance of developing erectile dysfunction around 10-15 years earlier than non-diabetics. 

Alternative Therapies Of Type 2 Diabetes


The science of Ayurveda manages diabetes through a combination of activities that include exercise (vyayam), dietary regulation (pathya), panchakarma (bio-purification) and medicines. It is best to consult an ayurveda consultant before taking any ayurvedic medicine for diabetes. Some household herbs and spices that you can include in your diet include:

  • Powdered jamun seeds can be taken with water or buttermilk (chaach).
  • Methi (fenugreek) seeds are taken with water 15-20 minutes before each meal. Methi has soluble fibers that slow down the digestion and absorption of glucose.
  • Bael leaves are squeezed to prepare fresh juice that can be taken along with a pinch of black pepper.
  • Dalchini (cinnamon) in powdered form can be taken with water as it helps in improving sugar as well as cholesterol level.
  • Concentrated amla juice taken along with bitter gourd juice, helps in releasing more insulin.
  • Karela (bitter gourd) juice is recommended to be taken every morning.
  • Homeopathy

Defined as a complementary medicine, homeopathy majorly concentrates on improving the functioning of the pancreas to produce insulin. Homeopathy experts rely on the patient’s history and temperament to devise a constitutional medication. However, it is recommended to use the homeopathic medicines only if prescribed by the homeopath and that too alongside the usual course of medications suggested.

It focuses on mindful exercise where a person’s attention is on the body or breathing and eases away worrying or depressing thoughts from the mind. Restorative yoga involves yoga poses and healing through relaxation techniques with conscious breathing and power yoga has been found to benefit for losing weight (a risk factor for diabetics). It has been studied for controlling both the symptom and complication associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

This technique involves the insertion of very thin needles through the skin at strategic points of the body. Acupuncture may be effective in treating not only diabetes, but also in preventing and managing complications of the disease.

Living With Type 2 Diabetes

Learn more about the condition by reading about the condition and its complications online. In case of any doubt, get your queries answered by your expert. This includes knowing when to check blood glucose level, the lifestyle changes to follow, the type of glucometer to use, etc.

1. Know the highs and lows
Diabetes can put them at risk of various health problems right from obesity and heart disease to depression. Hence, learn to accept the fact and ensure you help patients to control blood glucose levels.

2. Go for appointments with the patient
This can help you to know what extra precautions to take and what changes you need to make to ensure the proper management of diabetes.

3. Follow the same diet pattern as the patient
This can not only make you more cautious when it comes to eating healthy but sharing the same fitness plan can help you to ease stress and stay healthy. Lifestyle changes become habits when done together. You can even get diet-related advice through e-consultation.

4. Talk to other caregivers and also let the patient connect with other diabetics
Sharing the experiences can make it easy to deal with diabetes and understand more about the condition. You can reach out to diabetes communities or online support groups for help.


  1. IDF DIABETES ATLAS. Ninth edition 2019. International Diabetes Federation (IDF)
  2. Understanding A1c Diagnosis. American Diabetes Association (ADA)
  3. Varma PP. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in India – Where are we heading?. Indian J Nephrol. 2015;25(3):133-135.
  4. Kharroubi AT, Darwish HM. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(6):850-867.
  5. Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K. Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:95-105.
  6. Pandey A, Tripathi P, Pandey R, Srivatava R, Goswami S. Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011;3(4):504-512. 
  7. Prediabetes – Your Chance to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Last reviewed June 2020.

Did our information help you?In our relentless endeavour to keep improving our services, you are our eyes. Kindly take out sometime to guide us on how to serve your better.Share your feedbackSubscribe to stay informedSubscribe to our carefully crafted informative emailers by Medical Experts and be the first to get the latest health news, tips and important updates.Submit

DisclaimerRakesh Medicals ‘s sole intention is to ensure that its consumers get information that is expert-reviewed, accurate and trustworthy. However, the information contained herein should NOT be used as a substitute for the advice of a qualified physician. The information provided here is for informational purposes only. This may not cover all possible side effects, drug interactions or warnings or alerts. Please consult your doctor and discuss all your queries related to any disease or medicine. We intend to support, not replace, the doctor-patient relationship.




Glimepiride Uses

Glimepiride is used to lower the blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus when diet, physical exercise and weight reduction alone are not adequate.. It is used along with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

How Glimepiride works

Glimepiride is an antidiabetic medication. It works by increasing the amount of insulin released by the pancreas in order to lower blood glucose.

Common side effects of Glimepiride

Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose level), Headache, Nausea, Dizziness


  • Glimepiride helps decrease high blood sugar level and avoid long-term complications of diabetes.
  • Take it shortly before or with the first main meal of the day (usually breakfast). Avoid skipping meals.
  • Exercise regularly, eat a healthy diet and take your other diabetes medicines (if prescribed) alongside.
  • Monitor your blood sugar level regularly while you are taking this medicine. 
  • Be careful while driving or operating machinery until you know how Glimepiride affects you.
  • It can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level) when used with other antidiabetic medicines, alcohol or if you delay or miss a meal.
  • Always carry some sugary food or fruit juice with you in case you experience hypoglycemic symptoms such as cold sweats, cool pale skin, tremor and anxiety.
  • Your doctor may check your liver function regularly. Inform your doctor if you develop symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, or yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice).



Q. Does Glimepiride make you sleepy?

Glimepiride itself does not cause sleepiness. However, it may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) when used with other anti-diabetes medicine. Because of this you may feel sleepy or have problems in sleeping.

Q. Is Glimepiride safe for kidneys?

Glimepiride does not affect kidneys in patients with normal kidney function. However, its use should be avoided in patients with severe kidney disease since Glimepiride is principally eliminated by the kidneys.

Q. Does Glimepiride cause memory loss?

No, it is not known that Glimepiride causes memory loss. However, the use of Glimepiride may cause low blood sugar which may cause problems with concentration and reduced alertness.

Q. Who should not take Glimepiride?

Glimepiride should be avoided by patients who are allergic to it, have severe kidney or liver disease, have G6PD-deficiency (an inherited condition affecting red blood cells) or are due to have surgery. Additionally, patients who are trying to get pregnant, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1 diabetes mellitus) should avoid taking Glimepiride.

Q. How long does it take for Glimepiride to start working?

Glimepiride takes about 2 to 3 hours to reduce blood sugar levels. You may not feel any difference, but this does not mean the medicine is not working. Continue taking the medication as directed by your doctor and if you have any concerns, discuss it with your doctor.

Q. How long do I need to take Glimepiride? Can I stop the medication?

Usually, the treatment for diabetes is suggested for a long term. You may have to continue the treatment life long. Glimepiride only controls the sugar levels but does not cure it. Do not stop taking Glimepiride without talking to your doctor. If you stop taking Glimepiride suddenly your diabetes may get worse.

Q. How and when to take Glimepiride?

Glimepiride is advised to be taken in the dose and duration suggested by your doctor. Generally, a single daily dose of Glimepiride is sufficient to control blood sugar levels. The dose should be taken whole with water shortly before or during breakfast. However, if you skip breakfast then the medicine should be taken shortly before or during your first main meal.

Q. What can happen if I take more than the recommended dose of Glimepiride?

Glimepiride should be taken strictly as advised by the doctor. Overdose of Glimepiride may significantly decrease your blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). If you think you have taken an excess dose and experience a dip in your sugar level, consume enough sugar (e.g., a small bar of sugar cubes, sweet juice or sweetened tea) and inform a doctor immediately. Severe cases of hypoglycemia accompanied by loss of consciousness and coma require immediate medical treatment and admission into hospital.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Description of Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Description It is a combination of variety of symptoms occurring about 1 or 2 weeks before the expected menses and soon recedes in 1 to 2 days once menses start. It is most commonly found in women in the age group of 20 to 30. Almost every three out of four menstruating women experience symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The pattern of onset, duration, progress, and symptoms are specific to each woman. 

Causes and Risk Factors

 The exact cause of PMS is unknown. Following are some causative factors that are said to be responsible for the variety of PMS symptoms.1. Changes in hormones during menstrual cycle2. Changes in neurotransmitters (chemicals in brain) which affect mood, e.g., serotonin3. Personal or family history of depression4. Stress5. Deficiency of vitamins and minerals 

Signs and Symptoms 

 Common symptoms and signs are:1. Breast tenderness2. Bloating or heaviness in abdomen3. Headache4. Constipation or diarrhea5. Acne6. Food cravings7. Muscle pains8. Weight gain due to fluid retention9. Irritability10. Mood swings 


There is no specific test to diagnose PMS. A complete medical history and clinical examination can direct the physician towards diagnosis of PMS. Affected women should keep a track of these symptoms in a diary for at least 3 months. This can help the physician to confirm diagnosis and rule out other disorders. 

Treatment and Prevention

 Treatment and prevention include: 1. Drink plenty of water or fruit juices.2. Avoid intake of alcohol, soft drinks, or caffeine containing beverages.3. Avoid excess salt or salty foods that can cause fluid retention.4. Eat balanced healthy food containing vegetables, fiber, less salt, and fruits.5. Include nutrition supplements such as calcium, magnesium, vitamin B complex if required6. Do regular exercises, yoga, aerobics, swimming, or jogging for at least 30 minutes a day for physical fitness and refreshment.7. Take proper sleep.8. Medications include, painkillers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which can be prescribed for headache, backache, menstrual cramping, and breast tenderness. 

Complications and When Should You See a Doctor 

Sometimes the symptoms of PMS can get so severe that they affect daily routine activities of women.Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of PMS with signs and symptoms including severe depression, feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, low self-esteem, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and tension. Some women tend to suicide out of depression or PMDD. 




Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus or womb called the endometrium starts growing outside the uterine cavity. This endometrial tissue can grow in the ovaries, fallopian tubes and even the pelvic area. 

The typical symptoms of endometriosis include heavy menstrual flow, pelvic pain, and pain during urinary or bowel movements. Having an immediate family member suffering from the disease, early onset of menstruation and not having a child increase the risk of endometriosis. It usually affects women between the ages of 25 and 40. Women with endometriosis are more likely to have infertility or difficulty getting pregnant.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound or laparoscopy, which is the gold standard of diagnosis and treatment. Treatment often begins with medications such as oral contraceptives, GnRH analogues and injections to suppress the ovarian function. Surgery is often the last resort to treat the later stages of this condition.

You can take care of yourself at home by trying some simple remedies such as using a heating pad for pain relief and including remedies such as curcumin and green tea. Remember, ignoring the symptoms of endometriosis and not seeking treatment on time can result in severe complications.

Key Facts

Usually seen in

  • Adults between 25 – 40 years of age

Gender affected

  • Women

Body part(s) involved

  • Pelvic cavity
  • Uterus
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes


  • India: 25 million (2020)

Mimicking Conditions

  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Pelvic adhesions
  • Serositis
  • Functional or neoplastic ovarian cyst
  • Uterine malformation
  • Adenomyosis
  • Colon cancer
  • Ovarian cancer

Necessary health tests/imaging

  • USG whole abdomen
  • CT/MRI of Pelvis
  • Laparoscopy
  • Histological examination


  • NSAIDs: Ibuprofen
  • Oral contraceptives: Desogestrel, Etonogestre 
  • Danazol
  • Progestin: Medroxyprogesterone
  • GnRH analogues: Leuprolide
  • Intrauterine devices
  • Surgery

Specialists to consult

  • Gynecologist & obstetrician

Related NGOs

  • World endometriosis society

Symptoms Of Endometriosis

Many women with endometriosis may not have any symptoms. Such women come to know of endometriosis if they face difficulty in conceiving or during a routine ultrasound. The following are the most common symptoms for endometriosis, but each woman may experience symptoms differently:

  • Chronic pain in lower back and pelvis
  • Abnormal or heavy menstrual flow or bleeding between periods
  • Painful menstrual cramps
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Painful bowel movements during menstrual periods
  • Painful urination during menstrual periods
  • Other gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, constipation or nausea especially during menstrual periods
  • Infertility or difficulty in conceiving
  • Fatigue

  • Pelvic pain is the pain experienced internally in the reproductive region in both men and women. Read more about the common causes of pelvic pain in women.

Causes Of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an idiopathic disease, which means the cause of the disease is largely unknown. However, there are a few theories that explain the mechanism of endometriosis:

1. Retrograde or Reverse menstruation: This popular theory suggests that during menstruation, some of the blood and tissue containing endometrial cells from the uterus travels through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity. These endometrial cells stick to the walls of the pelvic cavity and continue to proliferate and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. Mostly all women have some degree of reverse menstruation, but only a few develop endometriosis. This is thought to be because of differences in a woman’s immune system.  

2. Coelomic metaplasia or Cellular metaplasia: According to this theory, cells in the body outside of the uterus transform into endometrial cells that line the uterus.

3. Endometrial cell transport: This theory suggests that endometrial tissue may travel through the blood or lymphatic system to other distant areas or organs.  

4. Direct implantation: Endometriosis can also occur because of direct transplantation in the abdominal wall. Eg. During a cesarean section or some pelvic surgery like hysterectomy, some endometriosis tissue might accidently get implanted in the abdominal incision. 

5. Genetic factors also play a role as the disease is much more common if your close relative like your mother, sister also has the disease.
The most common sites of endometriosis include:

  • The ovaries
  • The fallopian tubes
  • Tissues that hold the uterus in place
  • Outer surface of the uterus
  • The lining of the pelvic cavity

Other sites of growth could be the vagina, cervix, vulva, intestines, bladder, or rectum. Very rarely, endometriosis can appear in distant parts like the skin, lungs and brain.

Stages of endometriosis

Endometriosis occurs in 4 stages, depending on the depth and area it affects. These are described as follows:

Stage 1: This is the minimal type of endometriosis, where small lesions are present. These are present on the tissue lining the pelvis or abdomen. There is no scar tissue.

Stage 2: This is the mild type of endometriosis. More lesions are present in deeper tissue, along with some scar tissue. 

Stage 3: This is the moderate stage of endometriosis. There are several deep lesions at this stage. Small cysts may also be present in ovaries, along with scar tissue or thick bands known as adhesions.

Stage 4: This is the most severe stage of endometriosis. This type of endometriosis is widespread and is associated with several deep lesions and thick adhesions. Large cysts may also be present in one or both ovaries.

Risk Factors For Endometriosis

 Women are at higher risk for endometriosis if they:

  • Have an immediate family member such as a mother, sister or aunt suffering from endometriosis
  • Started their period at an early age (before the age of 11), also known as early menarche
  • Have short monthly cycles, which are less than 27 days
  • Have heavy menstruation or periods that last more than 7 days
  • Never had a child
  • Are giving birth for the first time after the age of 30 years
  • Have an abnormal uterus
  • Have a medical problem that prevents the normal flow of blood from the body during menstrual periods
  • Disorders of the reproductive tract
  • Consume alcohol in excess
  • Have intercourse during menstruation
  • Have low body mass index

Did you know?

When the ovary is involved because of endometriosis, blood can become embedded in the normal ovarian tissue, forming a “blood blister” surrounded by a fibrous cyst, called an endometrioma. So do not ignore any symptoms and consult an expert right away.

Diagnosis Of Endometriosis

Various ways by which endometriosis can be diagnosed are:

  • A pelvic examination: Your gynecologist will carry out a routine pelvic examination  after recording your medical history. 
  • USG Whole Abdomen: A diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the internal structures of the abdomen.
  • CT scan:  A noninvasive diagnostic imaging tool that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to create images of the pelvis to detect any abnormalities.
  • MRI scan: To gain visuals of the organs of the pelvis and lower abdomen. 
  • Laparoscopy: Laparoscopy is considered to be the gold standard of diagnosing endometriosis. In this procedure, laparoscope, which is a thin instrument with a light and a camera, is used to view the pelvic region and its organs.  
  • Histological examination: In certain cases of endometriosis, your doctor can take a biopsy or sample of tissue during laparoscopy and send it to a lab for evaluation.

Celebs affected

Padma Lakshmi

The Indian American Author and model Padma Lakshmi was diagnosed with endometriosis in 2006. According to reports online, she suffered from endometriosis for more than 20 years.

Cyndi Lauper

The American singer Cyndi Lauper said she was diagnosed with endometriosis in her 30s, after years of struggling to conceive.

Specialist To Visit

If you experience any symptoms of endometriosis it is important to visit a gynecologist and obstetrician at the earliest.


Most Indian women don’t have a regular gynaecologist like they do for a family doctor or General Physician(GP). Here is a list of the types of gynecologists you can consult for gynecological related problems.

Treatment Of Endometriosis

Endometriosis can be treated by medicines and surgery. Here’s some of the common treatment options for endometriosis:

Pain medication 

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Ibuprofen or other over-the-counter analgesics can give temporary relief from pain. If these do not help, a doctor may prescribe stronger drugs.

Hormonal therapy 

Hormonal therapy can lower the amount of estrogen which is directly linked to endometriosis. This helps in reducing bleeding, inflammation, scarring, and cyst formation. Common hormones used are:

  • Oral contraceptives: Function by suppression of ovarian function. Eg, Desogestrel  Etonogestrel.
  • Danazol: A synthetic derivative of testosterone (a male hormone). 
  • Progestin: These medicines suppress the activity of ovaries by modulating female hormones in the body. Eg, Medroxyprogesterone. 
  • GnRH analogues- GnRH analogues are given in injection form to suppress the ovarian activity, so the level of the hormones in the body is decreased. One of the most common GnRH analogue is Leuprolide.


Intrauterine devices such as the levonorgestrel system are placed in the uterine cavity, where it suppresses endometrial activity and also helps in regulating menstrual blood flow. 


Surgical procedures are often the last resort for the treatment of endometriosis. Surgery is often performed laparoscopically or even with an open procedure. This process involves removal (excision) or burning (fulguration) or both, of the endometriotic tissue. Removal of scar tissue can provide great relief in pain. Along with the relocation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes to their normal position in the pelvis during surgery, it can greatly increase the chances of a woman to get pregnant.

Home Care For Endometriosis

If you are suffering from endometriosis, you can follow these simple tips to ease the symptoms of this condition:

  • Take adequate rest. You can also use a hot pack, heating pad or hot bottle of water to ease the pain. 
  • You can also take long warm baths to ease the pain and associated symptoms of endometriosis. 
  • Prevent constipation. Constipation is common in women suffering from endometriosis, therefore it is advised to hydrate yourself and  include fibre-rich food to relieve the symptoms. 
  • Get regular exercise. Exercise improves blood circulation and helps nutrients and oxygen flow to all the systems of the body. Regular exercise can help in reducing pelvic pain associated with endometriosis.
  • If the pain gets severe, you can take painkillers after your doctor’s consultation. 

Complications Of Endometriosis

Endometriosis may have certain complications if it is severe in nature or is diagnosed or treated at a later stage. Some of the common complications of endometriosis are:

Fertility issues

Endometriosis can lead to fertility problems. The following ways are thought to cause infertility:

  • Endometriosis can change the shape of the pelvis and reproductive organs which makes it difficult for the sperm to find the egg or it can deform the fallopian tubes in such a way that they are not able to pick up the egg after ovulation.
  • It can cause inflammation that affects the normal function of the ovary, egg, fallopian tubes or uterus.
  • The immune system, which normally protects the body against any infection, begins to attack the embryo.
  • The endometrium or the uterine lining where implantation occurs, does not develop normally.

Some women suffering from endometriosis do not have any fertility issues and eventually get pregnant without any treatment. But, for many it can be harder to get pregnant. Sometimes, medication alone fails to improve fertility. Surgery can help you in improving your fertility by removing the patches of endometriosis tissue. 

Ovarian cysts and adhesions

Endometriosis leads to adhesions, which are the areas of endometriosis tissue that are sticky and glue the organs together. Endometriosis can also result in ovarian cysts, which are the fluid-filled cysts that can become large and painful. These can be treated with surgery. 

Bladder and bowel problems

Endometriosis can also affect your bladder or bowel movements. This condition may require major surgery, which may involve removing a small part of the bladder or intestine. 


Women suffering with endometriosis might be at a risk of developing ovarian cancer, but the risk is still relatively low. Another rare type of cancer, endometriosis-associated adenocarcinoma can develop later in life in those who have had endometriosis for a long time.

Most of the couples do not have any significant symptoms of infertility. In fact, it is not until the time they try to conceive that they know about infertility. The signs of infertility in women could be related to the underlying cause of the condition. 

Alternative Therapies Of Endometriosis

Here are few of the most common herbal and home remedies for the treatment of endometriosis:

Curcumin: Curcumin or turmeric has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties that are useful in treating the symptoms of endometriosis. You can take turmeric in the form of tablets or with your tea or milk by mixing a teaspoon of turmeric to your drink. 

Puerarin:  Puerarin is a compound that is found in kudzu plants. It contains isoflavonoid compounds that possess estrogenic effects. This component binds to the estrogen receptors (ERs) and relieves some of the symptoms of endometriosis.

Resveratrol: Resveratrol is a polyphenol compound that is mainly found in grapes, peanuts, mulberry, and some other plants. These foods have strong antioxidant properties and therefore could be of great help in endometriosis. 

Green tea: Green tea is a great antioxidant, which helps in prevention of new blood vessel formation (antiangiogenesis) and inhibits the function of microvessels that are present in the endometrial lesions. This helps in reducing the size and the weight of these lesions thereby hindering the growth of endometriosis. 

Living With Endometriosis

If you are suffering from endometriosis, you can follow these easy tips to reduce the pain and othe symptoms of endometriosis:

1. Use a hot pack: For the excruciating pain that comes with endometriosis, you can apply a hot water bottle or heating pad to your lower abdomen. This can help in proper blood circulation and muscle relaxation. Warm baths can also be of great help in treating endometriosis.

2. Take proper rest: If the pain of endometriosis becomes intense, you must take proper rest. You can place a pillow under your knees while you are on your back. While lying on your side, keep your knees close to your chest. These positions can reduce the pressure on your lower back. 

3. Get regular exercise: Exercise is helpful in releasing natural painkillers in your body, known as endorphins. Exercise also helps in improving blood circulation and flow of nutrients and oxygen to all the systems of the body.

4. Include a healthy & balanced diet: When it comes to endometriosis, maintaining a healthy weight can be of great help. You must also include plenty of fiber in your diet, which will help in preventing the painful straining during bowel movements.

5. Make use of alternative treatment: You can go for other techniques that also offer ways to relax and may help relieve pain Muscle relaxation, deep breathing, biofeedback and Yoga. you can also go for acupuncture that helps in painful periods. 


  1. Endometriosis. The American college of obstetricians and gynecologists; Last accessed on 24th March, 2021 
  2. Farquhar Cynthia. Endometriosis.BMJ. 2007 Feb 3; 334(7587): 249–253 
  3. What are the risk factors of endometriosis. National Institute of Child Health & Human Development. 
  4. C. Matthew Peterson, Johnstone Erica B,Hammoud Ahmad O, Stanford Joseph B, Varner Michael W. Risk factors associated with endometriosis: importance of study population for characterizing disease in the ENDO Study.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jun; 208(6): 451.e1–451.11. 
  5. Bilodeau Kelly.Treating the pain of endometriosis. Harvard Health Publishing; Nov 20, 2020. 
  6. Infertility. NHS; Last accessed on 24th march, 2021 
  7. Sai Kong, Yue-Hui Zhang, Chen-Fang Liu,Ilene Tsui, Ying Guo,Bei-Bei Ai, and Feng-Juan Han. The Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Endometriosis: A Review of Utilization and Mechanism. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 2014: 146383. 
  8. Haas Dietmar,Chvatal Radek , Reichert Björn, Renner Stefan, Shebl Omar , Binder Helge, Wurm Peter, Oppelt Peter. Endometriosis: a premenopausal disease? Age pattern in 42,079 patients with endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Sep;286(3):667-70 
  9. Spoorthy Venkatesh, M. Anjali, Akhila Vasudeva, and Pratap Kumar. Sliding Sign and Gel Sonovaginography: A Sneak Peek Prior to Laparoscopy in Patients with Endometriosis.J Hum Reprod Sci. 2020 Jan-Mar; 13(1): 26–30. 

Subscribe to our carefully crafted informative emailers by Medical Experts and be the first to get the latest health news, tips and important updates.



Rakesh Medicals  sole intention is to ensure that its consumers get information that is expert-reviewed, accurate and trustworthy. However, the information contained herein should NOT be used as a substitute for the advice of a qualified physician. The information provided here is for informational purposes only. This may not cover all possible side effects, drug interactions or warnings or alerts. Please consult your doctor and discuss all your queries related to any disease or medicine. We intend to support, not replace, the doctor-patient relationship.

Heavy menstrual bleeding  

Description of Heavy menstrual bleeding


Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) is defined as excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding, occurring at regular intervals. Normal menstrual period lasts for 4 to 5 days with 25 to 80 ml of blood loss. Menorrhagia is said to occur when blood loss is greater than 80 ml or if the bleeding lasts for more than 7 days.

It is also commonly known as hypermenorrhea.

Causes and Risk Factors

The cause of menorrhagia is usually not identified. Some of the causes that may be associated with the problem include:

1. Ovarian endocrine disorder or dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)

2. Blood coagulation disorders: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), von Willebrand disease

3. Drugs such as anticoagulants

4. Menopause

5. Intrauterine contraceptives devices

6. Uterine fibroids

7. Endometrial infection

8. Endometrial abnormalities, e.g., endometriosis, adenomyosis

9. Endometrial carcinoma (cancer of inner lining of uterus)

10. Excess anxiety, stress, and tension

Signs and Symptoms 

Common symptoms are:

1. Menstrual bleeding for more than 7 days

2. Excessive bleeding that may soak one or more sanitary pads every hour for a number of hours

3. Shortness of breath, tiredness, fatigue during menstrual period

4. Large blood clots during menstrual period


Investigations include:

1. Pelvic and rectal examination (for any abnormality or cause of bleeding)

2. Pelvic ultrasound (to check for any structural abnormality)

3. Pap smear (scrapings of cells from inner lining of cervix are examined microscopically for any cancerous changes)

4. Endometrial biopsy (to rule out atypical hyperplasia or endometrial cancer)

5. Hysteroscopy (endoscopic examination of uterine cavity)

6. Bleeding time and coagulation tests

7. Platelet function studies

8. D&C (dilation and curettage) operation — done to collect scrapings from the inner wall of uterus, which is then examined microscopically for any hormonal abnormality/disorders.


1. In mild cases with less bleeding, no treatment is usually required.

2. All patients with menorrhagia are advised bed rest, to avoid exertion, vigorous exercise, anxiety, and tension.

3. Medications


Prognosis is generally good if the diagnosis and treatment are adequate.